SHARPIN protein involved in regulating inflammation has anti-septic effects
Sepsis can be defined as “a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection.” Septic shock comprises a subset of sepsis in which underlying circulatory and cellular metabolism abnormalities are severe enough to substantially increase the risk of death. Symptoms of sepsis include changes in body temperature, rapid heart rate, and rapid breathing. Other indicators are reduced urine output, changes in mental status, breathing difficulty, abdominal pain, and low platelet count.
Sepsis represents a serious complication of infection and is one of the leading causes of death and critical illness worldwide due in part to the lack of effective therapies.
SHARPIN, a protein involved in regulating inflammation, has anti-septic effects. These findings may spur development of novel sepsis treatments.
“Sepsis has been linked to enhanced activity of the enzyme caspase 1 and aberrant expression of pro-inflammatory interleukins 1β and 18.
SHARPIN binds to caspase 1 and inhibits its activation.
Sepsis in mice bred to be deficient in SHARPIN resulted in enhanced levels of interleukins 1β and 18 and active caspase 1, as well as shortened survival.
Treatment with a caspase 1 inhibitor reversed these effects by reducing levels of interleukins 1β and 18, decreasing cell death in the spleen, and prolonging survival.
There is decline in SHARPIN levels in septic patients correlating with enhanced activation of caspase 1 in circulating mononuclear cells and an increase of interleukin1β/18 in the plasma.
This suggests that using pharmacological caspase 1 inhibitors could be beneficial in septic patients with low SHARPIN levels and these therapies may be more efficient than other anti-inflammatory therapies.