• Nipah virus infection in humans causes asymptomatic infection (subclinical) to acute respiratory infection and fatal encephalitis.
• Fatality rate (approx.) 40 – 75 %. • Transmitted from o animals (bats or pigs), o contaminated foods o Human to human
• Natural host Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family.
• Vaccine – Not available.
• Treatment: supportive. Outbreaks
• First recognized in 1999 during an outbreak among pig farmers in, Malaysia.
• Bangladesh in 2001, followed by nearly annual outbreaks.
• Periodically identified in eastern India (Siliguri, India in 2001).
• Regions at risk: Cambodia, Ghana, Indonesia, Madagascar, Philippines, and Thailand. Transmission
• Direct contact with sick pigs or their contaminated tissues; via unprotected exposure to secretions from the pigs, or unprotected contact with the tissue of a sick animal.
• Consumption of fruits or fruit products (such as raw date palm juice) contaminated with urine or saliva from infected fruit bats.
• Human to human transmission among family and care givers of infected patients.
• Through close contact with people’s secretions and excretions. Signs and symptoms
• It ranges from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory infection (mild, severe), and fatal encephalitis.
• Infected people initially develop o influenza-like symptoms of fever, o headaches, o myalgia (muscle pain), o vomiting, o sore throat.
• This can be followed by dizziness, drowsiness, altered consciousness, and neurological signs that indicate acute encephalitis.
• Atypical pneumonia and severe respiratory problems, including acute respiratory distress.
• Encephalitis and seizures occur in severe cases, progressing to coma within 24 to 48 hours.
• Incubation period (interval from infection to the onset of symptoms) range from 4 to 14 days. (Can be as long as 45 days)
• Survivor from acute encephalitis gets full recovery, but long term neurologic conditions (seizure disorder, personality changes, relapse or delayed onset encephalitis) may occur.
• Fatality rate: 40 – 75 %.
• The main tests used are o Real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from bodily fluids and
o Antibody detection via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
o Virus isolation by cell culture.
• Treat severe respiratory and neurologic complications.
• Other supportive care.
fruit bats • Fruit bats of the family Pteropodidae – particularly species belonging to the Pteropus genus.
Nipah virus in domestic animals
• Nipah virus can transmitted in pigs and other domestic animals such as horses, goats, sheep, cats and dogs.
• The virus is highly contagious in pigs. Pigs are infectious during the incubation period, which lasts from 4 to 14 days.
• An infected pig can exhibit no symptoms, but some develop acute feverish illness, labored breathing, and neurological symptoms such as trembling, twitching and muscle spasms.
• Mortality is low except in young piglets.
• Nipah virus should be suspected if pigs also have an unusual barking cough or if human cases of encephalitis are present.
• Controlling Nipah virus in pigs.
• No vaccines available against Nipah virus.
• Routine and thorough cleaning and disinfection of pig farms with appropriate detergents may be effective in preventing infection.
• During outbreak; the animal premises should be quarantined immediately.
• Culling of infected animals – with close supervision of burial or incineration of carcasses.
• Restricting or banning the movement of animals from infected farms to other areas can reduce the spread of the disease.